By Darwin V. Ellis
The 1st variation of this ebook demystified the method of good log research for college students, researchers and practitioners. within the twenty years considering the fact that, the has replaced vastly: technical staffs are smaller, and hydrocarbons are tougher to find, quantify, and bring. New drilling innovations have engendered new dimension units integrated into the drilling string. company restructuring and the "graying" of the staff have prompted a lack in technical competence desirous about the quest and exploitation of petroleum. The up-to-date 2d version experiences logging dimension know-how constructed within the final 20 years, and expands the petrophysical purposes of the measurements.
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The 1st version of this e-book demystified the method of good log research for college students, researchers and practitioners. within the 20 years on the grounds that, the has replaced drastically: technical staffs are smaller, and hydrocarbons are more durable to find, quantify, and convey. New drilling options have engendered new dimension units included into the drilling string.
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Additional resources for Well Logging for Earth Scientists
The Geophysicist: As a Geophysicist what do you look for? '' Are the tops where you predicted? '' Are the potential zones porous as you have assumed from seismic data? '' What does a synthetic seismic section show? The Geologist: The Geologist may ask: '' What depths are the formation tops? '' Is the environment suitable for accumulation of Hydrocarbons? '' Is there evidence of Hydrocarbon in this well? '' What type of Hydrocarbon? '' Are Hydrocarbons present in commercial quantities? '' How good a well is ti?
8 The induction log heading and schematic of the formation, with three zones corresponding approximately to the simultaneous electrical measurements of different depths of investigation. for finding clean sections was that the SP becomes less negative for increasing shale, so that deflections of the SP trace to the right will correspond to increasing shale content. The GR curve, as it is scaled in increasing activity (in American Petroleum Institute (API) units) to the right, will also produce curve deflections to the right for increasing shale content.
However, the underlying basis for the spontaneous potential is the fundamental process of diffusion – the self-diffusion of the dissolved ions in the fluids in the borehole and in the formation. Electrochemical potentials of interest to the generation of the spontaneous potential are the liquid junction potential and the membrane potential. 7 schematically illustrates the situation for the generation of the liquid-junction potential. To the left is a saline solution of low NaCl concentration. To the right is one of a higher ionic concentration, as indicated by the sketch of electrolyte number densities n + (x) and n − (x) as a function of position.