By Marika Torbacke
These operating with tribology frequently have a history in mechanical engineering, whereas humans operating with lubricant improvement have a chemistry/chemical engineering historical past. this suggests they've got a practice of impending difficulties in several methods. Today’s product improvement places larger calls for on timing and caliber, requiring collaboration among individuals with diverse backgrounds. even though, they could lack figuring out of every other’s demanding situations in addition to a typical language, and so this booklet goals to bridge the distance among those areas.
Lubricants: creation to homes and function offers a simple to appreciate evaluate of tribology and lubricant chemistry. the 1st a part of the ebook is theoretical and offers an advent to tribological touch, friction, put on and lubrication, in addition to the elemental techniques concerning homes and the main ordinarily made analyses on lubricants. Base fluids and their houses and customary ingredients utilized in lubricants also are coated. the second one a part of the booklet is hands-on and introduces the reader to the particular formulations and the assessment in their functionality. various functions and their corresponding lubricant formulations are thought of and tribological try out tools are mentioned. eventually used oil characterisation and floor characterisation are coated which offer the reader an creation to varied tools of characterising used oils and surfaces, respectively.
- Combines chemistry and tribology of lubricants into one unified approach
- Covers the elemental thought, describing lubricant houses in addition to base fluids and additives
- comprises functional info at the formulations of lubricants and evaluates their performance
- Considers functions of lubricants in hydraulics, gears and combustion engines
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Extra info for Lubricants: Introduction to Properties and Performance
Oxidation usually starts at the double bonds in the hydrocarbon. At a certain point the carboxylic acids are cleaved forming radicals, RO∙ and ∙OH. A radical is a highly reactive chemical species and is denoted by a point next to the chemical formula. The radicals will immediately react with new hydrocarbons (RH), forming sludge and a new radical, R∙. This radical R∙ will, together with oxygen, O2 , react and form ROO∙, which will react with a new hydrocarbon (RH) to form either an R∙ or ROOH .
The equilibrium point is commonly identified using a potentiometer. 3 Oxidation Stability Fresh lubricants have inherent oxidation stability depending on their composition. The lubricant ages by oxidation when it is brought into contact with oxygen at elevated temperatures. 11) where k is the chemical reaction rate constant at temperature T [K], const is a constant, EA is the activation energy required for a chemical reaction to occur and R is the gas constant. The rate of oxidation is doubled every 10 ◦ C and starts to become significant above 60 ◦ C .
It is important to wear protective clothing when handling lubricants to avoid skin contact. This is particularly important when handling low viscosity lubricants, both due to risk of uptake via the skin and also due to risk of inhalation of oil mist. All used oils should be treated as dangerous waste and should be handled according to legal requirements. Environmental properties comprise here both local and global environments. By local environment is meant the working environment with properties reducing, for example, oil mist or allergies when brought into contact with food and humans.