By Stuart A. Cohen
Israel and its military: From unity to Confusion КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: RoutledgeСерия: heart jap army studiesАвтор(ы): Stuart A. CohenЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2008Количество страниц: 223ISBN: 0-203-93065-7Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 1.39 mb RAPIDили IFOLDER zero
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Shapira 1992: 288). The shift in attitude was most obviously expressed at an institutional level. 2 Equally noteworthy, however, is the way in which the emergence of a new type of military organization was accompanied, and indeed promoted, by a deeper transformation of 22 Changing contexts cultural values. Inexorably, or so it now seems, military themes and motifs seeped into the Yishuv’s poetry, prose and songs, which they at times indeed seemed to dominate. Armed skirmishes, such as the heroically unsuccessful defense of the Galilean Jewish outpost at Tel-Hai in 1920, assumed mythological proportions (Zerubavel 1991).
This scheme of things demanded neither universal conscription nor even the nurturing of a popular martial ethos – ‘Just a professional army, equipped, of course, with every requisite of modern warfare, to preserve order internally and externally’ (Herzl 1946: 147). Virtually, all of Zionism’s precursors and early practitioners shared this naively utopian view. Only Zvi Hirsch Kalischer (1795–1894), a rabbi from the backwaters of western Poland, was prescient enough to foresee that Jewish settlers in Palestine might have to defend themselves from native marauders, a need to which he devoted an entire paragraph in his pathbreaking Derishat Ziyyon (‘Seeking Zion’), first published in 1862 (Kalischer 2002: 130).
But despite all the attempts at parsimony, according to figures compiled by Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics (2007, Table 5), only in 1953 did annual defense outlays ever amount to less than 6 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). 1 percent, and then leveled out at about 9 percent until 1967, when they jumped again to 17 percent. 1 percent in 1975. Reparations from West Germany, foreign loans and gifts from Diaspora Jewry all helped to alleviate the defense burden. Nevertheless, taxes on the Israeli citizen remained enormously high.