By Donald Davidson
The eighteen essays during this assortment handle the query of what it truly is for phrases to intend what they do. Davidson covers such issues because the relation among theories of fact and theories of which means, translation, citation, trust, radical interpretation, reference, metaphor, and verbal exchange.
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Additional resources for Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation
I t be hoves us then to rephrase our demand on a satisfactory t heory of meaning so as not to suggest t hat individual words must have meanings at all , in any sense that transcends the fact t hat they have a systematic effect on the meanings of t he sentences in which t hey occu r. Actuall y, for the case at hand we can do better still in stating t he criterion of success : what we wanted, and what we got, is a theory that entail s every sentence of the form ' t refers to x ' where " t' is replaced by a structu ral descri ption 2 of a singular term , and 'x ' is replaced by t hat term itsel f.
W e can always trade problems of ontology raised by putatively referential expressions and positions for problems of logical articulation. If an expression offend by its supposed reference, there is no need to pluck it out. It is enough to declare the expression a meaningless part of a meaningful expression. This treatment will not quite kill before it cures ; after all singular terms and positions open to quantification have been welded into their contexts, there will remain the logical structure created by treating sentences as unanalysable units and by the pure sentential connectives.
Sche ffler, ' A n Inscripti onal Approach to Ind i rect Discou rse' a n d The Anatomy be of" Inquiry. 17 R. Carnap, Meaning and Necessity. Truth and Meaning 12 Church objected that Carnap's analysis carried an implicit reference to a language which was lacking in the sentences to be analysed, and added that he believed any correct analysis would interpret the that clause as referring to a proposition. I 8 Scheffler set out to show that a correct analysis could manage with less by demonstrating what could be done with an ontology of inscriptions (and utterances).