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Apportioning the ownership of land as equally as possible gives more people access to the land and accelerates the build-up of capital in the agricultural sector. (2) Advances in technology needed to increase production can be broadly categorized as land-saving or labour-saving. A n y advance that increases yields, such as new methods of farming and cultivation, fertilizers, crop protection and irrigation, is land-saving. All forms of mechanization are labour-saving. In the developing countries agricultural research, training and advice must be aimed primarily at encouraging the use of land-saving advances in technology.

This results in the urban population growing faster than the total population. Migrants from the country remain in the lowest social strata because they are not adequately trained and for this group food prices are critical. The shortage of capital means that it is some time before the infrastructure required to supply the new, migrant population is in place, so prices rise. Rising food prices trigger demands for higher wages. Another worry of governments is that people of the lower strata of urban society might use their power to protest and demonstrate, so governments tend to defer the price rises needed by the producers.

In Germany and the U . S . A . energy used for agricultural production accounts for less than 2 - 3 % of total national energy consumption. In these countries, the food economy as a whole (the food industry, distribution and households), accounts for 20-25% of total national energy use (Leach 1976, F A O 1979, Weber 1979), so the opportunities for making savings in the overall food economy of the industrialized countries are much greater than in agriculture. 5 Risks in cultivating and irrigating more land Most of the land which could still be cultivated is in sparsely populated, humid tropical regions.

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