By Martin J. Bull, James L. Newell (eds.)
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Additional resources for Corruption in Contemporary Politics
What has been distinctive in Spain is that this process has taken place in parallel with the consolidation of the new and decentralized democratic regime. When the Socialists won the election in 1982, they did so against the background of an initial period of democracy in which central government had for the most part been staffed by people with strong ties to the authoritarian regime. Consequently, the Socialists began to implement a policy towards the civil service that was aimed at securing the primacy of elected officials against bureaucratic elites.
People seem to be influenced by the cultural atmosphere described above, because of the behaviour patterns of state functionaries. As far as politicians are concerned, people tend to believe that, regardless of party affiliation, they enter politics for their own benefit rather than to alleviate the harsh reality of people’s everyday problems. 5 per cent ‘agree strongly’. 6 per cent respectively, ‘agree’ or ‘agree somewhat’ that ‘political parties aim only to get our votes’ (Andreas Papandreou Institute, 1999: 19–20, 96).
We consider a deficit or lack of such ties as constituting the defining characteristics of the so-called ‘idioteles society’. Such a society is characterized precisely by an unwillingness on the part of citizens to submit themselves to whatever promotes the common interest. One of its main features is the illegal satisfaction (through a black economy) of needs of a collective character such as housing. Another feature is the satisfaction of particularistic interests through institutional channels.