By Raz Miri
The efficacy of cardiac resynchronization treatment (CRT) via biventricular pacing (BVP) has been established via a variety of experiences in sufferers struggling with congestive middle failure. for you to in achieving a tenet for optimum remedy with BVP units, an automatic non-invasive process in response to an electrophysiological laptop version of the guts is gifted. The provided examine investigates an off-line optimization set of rules according to assorted electrode positioning and timing delays
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Additional resources for Computer assisted optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy
Furthermore, ventricular pacing in a high position will result in an upright QRS in aVF, whereas with a lower position it will have a less positive QRS deflection in aVF. A study of Analson et al.  showed that the probability of the latest mechanical activation in the lateral wall is 35 %. This existence probability decreases in anterior and posterior regions to 26 % and 23 % respectively, whereas the inferior wall (septum) infrequently shows the latest mechanical activity (16 %). The study has demonstrated that optimal resynchronization could be obtained when the region with the latest activity determined by echocardiography is paced.
Each lead has its own specific view of the heart’s angle of orientation. The angle of each lead can be determined by drawing a line from the negative to the positive electrode. The resulted angle is then expressed in degrees by superimposing it on 360◦ circle of the frontal plane . The three standard bipolar limb leads are defined as follows: 1. A positive signal in lead I is created by making the left arm positive and the right arm negative. The orientation angle is 0◦ . 2. A positive signal in lead II is created by making the legs positive and the right arm negative.
B) Anteroseptal. (c) Apical. (d) Anterobasal. (e) Posteroinferior. (f) Posteroseptal. (g) Posterolateral. (h) Posterobasal. 2. Left ventricular remodeling: is the process by which mechanical, neurohormonal and genetic factors alter ventricular size, shape, and function. Remodeling occurs in several clinical conditions, including myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and valvular heart disease [92, 133, 259]. For example, after a myocardial infarction, the acute loss of myocardial cells results in abnormal loading conditions that 36 Chapter 2.