Download Clinical physiology : an examination primer by Ashis Banerjee PDF

By Ashis Banerjee

Preface; 1. telephone body structure; 2. Water and electrolyte stability; three. Acid-base stability; four. Renal body structure; five. Temperature law; 6. Cardiovascular process; 7. breathing method; eight. Blood; nine. Neurophysiology; 10. Endocrine body structure; eleven. Reproductive method; 12. Gastro-intestinal body structure; Index

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C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP): of endothelial cell origin They share a common structure, consisting of a 17 amino acid central Processes involved in urine production Effects of natriuretic peptides disulphide ring, with variable length N-terminal and C-terminal segments. They are synthesised as high molecular weight precursors. Their effects are mediated by cell surface receptors with a guanyl cyclase catalytic domain, with cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) being generated as a second messenger.

G. secretory diarrhoea). Renal water loss can be evaluated by measuring urine osmolality. Hypervolaemic hypernatraemia, which is due to an increase in total body sodium that is disproportionately greater than the increase in total body water. This is either iatrogenic and caused by hypertonic saline or sodium bicarbonate, or associated with primary hyperaldosteronism. Euvolaemic hypernatraemia. This is caused by either renal water losses (diabetes insipidus) or increased insensible water losses, and is associated with a normal total body sodium content.

There is no gradient between PACO2 and paCO2. There is a reciprocal relationship between PAO2 and PACO2. The expected PAO2 in kPa is approximately equal to the FiO2 (%) minus 10. 3 kPa (40 mm Hg) at 37 8C. This reflects the change in buffer base concentration of blood in the presence of excess acid or base, ranging from À2 to þ 2 mmol/l. A normal range of values denotes normal metabolic acid–base status. A base deficit indicates metabolic acidosis, and a base excess metabolic alkalosis. The base deficit x body weight (in kilograms), divided by 4, yields the deficient number of millimoles of HCO3.

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