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99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. Perneger TV, Whelton PK, Puddey IB, Klag MJ. Risk of end-stage renal disease associated with alcohol consumption. Am J Epidemol 1999; 150: 1275-1281. Emmerson BT. Chronic lead nephropathy. Kidney Int 1973; 4: 1-5. Rodriguez-Puyol D. The aging kidney. Kidney Int 1998; 54: 2247-2265 Bennett WM. Geriatric pharmacokinetics and the kidney. Am J Kidney Dis 1990; 16: 283-288.

Little is known on the facilitated reabsorption of organic cat- 26 ions. The reabsorption of choline involved a sensitive pathway at the apical membrane [25]. Several peptide-like drugs such as β-lactam antibiotics (ceftibuten, cyclacillin) are substrates of the peptide transporters localized in the brush-border membrane, and are taken up into proximal cells. The peptide transporters mediate an electrogenic H+-coupled cotransport of di- and tri-peptides, which is driven by the proton gradient and the negative transmembrane potential difference [26].

Moore RD, Smith CR, Lipsky JJ, Mellitus ED, Lietman PS. Risk factors for nephrotoxicity in patients treated with aminoglycosides. Ann Intern Med 1984; 100: 352-373. Miller JA, Anacta LA, Cattran DC. Impact of gender on the renal response to angiotensin II. Kidney Int 1999; 55: 278-285. Anderson S, Rennke H, Brenner B. Therapeutic advantage of converting enzyme inhibitors in arresting progressive renal disease associated with systemic hypertension in the rat. J Clin Invest 1986; 77: 1993-2000. Freedman BI, Spray BJ, Tuttle AB, Buckalew VM.

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