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By Mary McAuley

Regardless of their very varied histories, societies, political and criminal platforms, Russia and the united kingdom stand out as favoring a punitive method of younger legislations breakers, imprisoning many extra youngsters than the other eu nations. The ebook relies at the author's fundamental examine in Russia within which she visited a dozen closed associations from St Petersburg to Krasnoyarsk and on related study in England and northern Ireland. The result's a distinct research of ways attitudes to formative years crime and felony justice, the political surroundings and the connection among nation and society have interacted to persuade the therapy of younger offenders. McAuley's account of the twists and turns in coverage in the direction of adolescence remove darkness from the extreme heritage of Russia within the 20th century and the making of social coverage in Russia today. It can be the 1st research to match the united kingdom (excluding Scotland due to its separate juvenile justice approach) with Russia, a comparability which highlights the standards accountable for the making of 'punitive' coverage within the societies. McAuley areas the Russian and united kingdom guidelines in a eu context, aiming to bare how different ecu international locations be capable to positioned such a lot of fewer little ones in the back of bars. Mary McAuley is an affiliate of the overseas Centre for legal reports, King's university, London. She used to be Fellow in Politics at St Hilda's university Oxford till 1995, with past posts on the universities of York and Essex. From 1996 to 2002 she ran the Ford Foundation's Moscow place of work. regardless of their very various histories, societies, political and criminal platforms, Russia and the united kingdom stand out as favoring a punitive method of younger legislation breakers, imprisoning many extra teenagers than the other ecu nations. The e-book relies at the author's basic learn in Russia during which she visited a dozen closed associations from St Petersburg to Krasnoyarsk and on related study in England and northerly eire. the result's a special research of ways attitudes to adolescence crime and legal justice, the political atmosphere and the connection among kingdom and society have interacted to steer the therapy of younger offenders. McAuley's account of the twists and turns in coverage in the direction of formative years remove darkness from the intense historical past of Russia within the 20th century and the making of social coverage in Russia at the present time. it's also the 1st examine to check the united kingdom (excluding Scotland due to its separate juvenile justice process) with Russia, a comparability which highlights the criteria liable for the making of 'punitive' coverage within the societies. McAuley locations the Russian and united kingdom rules in a ecu context, aiming to bare how different eu nations have the capacity to placed such a lot of fewer young ones in the back of bars. regardless of their very various histories, societies, political and felony platforms, Russia and the united kingdom stand out as favoring a punitive method of younger legislations breakers, imprisoning many extra childrens than the other ecu nations. The ebook is a different research of ways attitudes to early life crime and felony justice, the political surroundings and the connection among kingdom and society have interacted to persuade the therapy of younger offenders. it's also the 1st learn to check the united kingdom with Russia, putting their rules in a ecu context to bare how different eu international locations have the capacity to positioned  many fewer childrens at the back of bars.

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4). The same point holds for Russia: on 1 January 2005 13,440 were in the colonies while during 2004, 20,880 had been sentenced to custody. ’ Decisions on whether it is desirable or appropriate to lock up young people, as opposed to dealing with their transgressions in some other way, are influenced by a number of factors, and it is this we shall need to explore. After all some societies manage to reduce the use of detention to a minimum. Does history play a part, perhaps in Russia, but surely not in the UK?

To understand this quite complicated set of principles, we need to remember that criminal justice, as a mechanism, evolved in societies where inequality in wealth and power prevailed, and that criminal justice systems are designed by the powerful, and powerful adult males at that. Take the principle that the individual is responsible for his actions, and all are equal before the court. If a rich man steals a loaf of bread, and a poor man steals a loaf of bread, they are both equally culpable. It is the offence that matters.

Youthful offending may affect the youth justice system, but youth justice systems probably have very little impact on youthful offending. (Tonry and Doob 2004: 19–20) In other words, one should not look to a criminal justice system to ‘solve’ the problem of youth crime. So are we suggesting that policies towards youth will have no effect upon ‘crime’? No, of course not. We are saying that the criminal justice system is a clumsy and ineffective instrument to use for reducing or changing patterns of behaviour by children – whether it is stealing because they are hungry, robbing their peers of their mobile phones, consuming alcohol or drugs, or increasingly using knives and other instruments in violent attacks.

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