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By John Spargo

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It was not surprising that the leaders of the Social Democratic party should be suspicious FROM REVOLUTION TO REVOLUTION 43 and distrustful of the Constitutional Democrats and refuse to co-operate with them . But many of the Social Democrats went much farther than this, and, in the name of Socialism and proletarian class consciousness, adopted the same attitude toward the Duma itself as that which the agents of the Black Hundreds were urging upon the people . Among the Socialist leaders who took this position was Vladimir Ulyanov, the great propagandist whom the world knows to-day as Nikolai Lenine, Bolshevik Prime Minister and Dictator .

On June 3d the Second Duma met the fate of its predecessor, having lasted one hundred days . IV As on the former occasion, arrangements were at once begun to bring about the election of another and more subservient Duma. It is significant that throughout Nicholas II and his Cabinet recognized the imperative necessity of maintaining the institution in form . They dared not abolish it, greatly as they would have liked to do so. On the day that the Duma was dissolved the Czar, asserting his divine right to enact and repeal laws at will, disregarding again the solemn assurances of the October Manifesto, by edict changed the electoral laws, consulting neither the Duma nor the Imperial Council .

N ONostruggle matter how vast and seemingly complete the failure, there is always something of enduring good achieved . That is the law of progress, universal and immutable. The First Russian Revolution conformed to the law ; it had failed and died in a tragic way, yet its failure was relative and it left something of substantial achievement as the foundation for fresh hope, courage, and effort. Czarism had gathered all its mighty black forces and seemed, at the beginning of I9o6, to be stronger than at any time in fifty years .

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