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By Monique LaBerge

An advent to the basics of biochemistry. This booklet explains an important advancements and achievements within the box, identifies key rules, and covers the necessities in a concise demeanour.

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Since the weather can often change, they also prepare other skis with another kind of wax more suitable, say, for snow conditions that could become wetter. All these adjustments are made to reduce the friction between the skis and the snow and give the skier an edge in gaining a few milliseconds. Generally, when the temperature is very cold and the snow is hard, skiers use a hard wax to make the ski base more resistant to the sharp ice crystals. In wet snow, they use a softer wax to repel the melt water generated from the skis.

The above image shows the protein (blue) and backbone (magenta) of a lysozyme. It also shows the substrate (yellow) which is bound to the active site. Lysozyme A lysozyme is a small enzyme that protects living organisms from bacterial ­infection. It does this by attacking the protective cell walls that surround each bacterial cell. Bacteria have a tough skin made up of long carbohydrate chains. Lysozyme breaks these chains and destroys the cell walls of bacteria. The enzyme was discovered by Alexander Fleming who was trying to make medical antibiotics, the drugs that kill bacteria.

Just as a door key will open one door, enzymes make one reaction possible. hoW enzymes WorK There are four steps involved in enzyme activity: 1. An enzyme and a substrate approach each other. 2. The enzyme has a special area called the active site. 1 The above diagram illustrates the “lock and key” hypothesis of enzyme action. The approaching substrate fits perfectly into the ­enzyme—­like a key going into a lock. The ­enzyme-­substrate complex is then formed, and products form out of the substrate.

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