By Sevim Z. Erhan, Joseph M. Perez
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Extra info for Biobased Industrial Fluids and Lubricants
9. , and F. De Clercq, The Development of Hydraulic Fluids for Earthmoving Machines Complying with Ecolabel Requirements, SAE, Technical Paper 981490 (1998). 10. , K. Lal, and C. R. Booser, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1997. 11. , S. R. Benson, Development of a High-Oleic Soybean Oil Based Hydraulic Fluid, Lubricants World 1, 49–50 (1999). Copyright © 2002 AOCS Press Chapter 4 A Comparison of Synthetic and Vegetable Oil Esters for Use in Environmentally Friendly Fluids Leslie R. ) polyalphaolefin (PAO) base fluids.
To determine the percentage of transesterification, the area for the hydrogen signals inherent to the transesterified products, namely, the alkyl hydrogens alpha to the ester oxygen atom derived from the alcohol portion of the newly formed esters, is compared to the hydrogen signals of the glycerol molecule inherent to tri-, di-, and monoacylglycerol products. 2 summarizes the chemical shifts observed for the hydrogen signals of the various esters produced by transesterification and the hydrogen signals of the glycerol backbone that are used for percentage of transesterification calculation.
Soc. 103, 6447–6455 (1981). 7. , and A. Knorr, An Evaluation of Antioxidants for Vegetable Oils at Elevated Temperatures, Lubr. Sci. 8, 95–117 (1996). 8. C. A. van Schaick, Crystal Structures and Melting Points of Unsaturated Triacylglycerols in the β Phase, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68, 371– 378 (1991). 9. , L. M. de Man, Polymorphic Behavior of High-Melting Glycerides from Hydrogenated Canola Oil, Ibid. 68, 907–911 (1991). 10. -Y. Linko, M. Lamsa, T. Tervakangas, and P. Linko, Transesterification of Trimethylolpropane and Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester to Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants, Ibid.