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By Mattias, Ph.D. Collin, Raymond, Ph.D. Schuch

Chemical interactions among organisms in microbial groups / Duan, ok. ... [et al.] -- Autoinducer-2-based chemical verbal exchange in micro organism: complexities of interspecies signaling / Federle, M.J. -- The molecular foundation of excitation and edition in the course of chemotactic sensory transduction in micro organism / Rao, C.V., Ordal, G.W. -- Bacterial PEP-dependent carbohydrate: phosphotransferase structures couple sensing and worldwide keep an eye on mechanisms / Lengeler, J.W., Jahreis, K.-- Correlations among carbon metabolism and virulence in micro organism / Poncet, S. ... [et al.] -- Stand-alone reaction regulators controlling international virulence networks in streptococcus pyogenes / McIver, K.S. -- The heme sensor procedure of staphylococcus aureus / Stauff, D.L., Skaar, E.P. -- Bacterial sensing of antimicrobial peptides / Otto, M. -- RNA thermosensors in bacterial pathogens / Johansson, J. -- triumphing strategies of c-di-GMP signaling / Romling, U., Simm, R. -- Magnetosomes and magneto-aerotaxis / Frankel, R.B., Bazylinski, D.A. -- Engineering bacterial signs and sensors / Salis, H., Tamsir, A., Voigt, C

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15 Lyon WR, Madden JC, Levin JC, Stein JL, Caparon MG: Mutation of luxS affects growth and virulence factor expression in Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol Microbiol 2001;42:145–157. 16 Ohtani K, Hayashi H, Shimizu T: The luxS gene is involved in cell-cell signalling for toxin production in Clostridium perfringens. Mol Microbiol 2002;44: 171–179. 17 DeLisa MP, Wu CF, Wang L, Valdes JJ, Bentley WE: DNA microarray-based identification of genes controlled by autoinducer 2-stimulated quorum sensing in Escherichia coli.

The second gene found near luxS in B. burgdorferi was pfs. The Pfs enzyme detoxifies SAH by removing adenine and generating S-ribosyl homocysteine (SRH). Cells break down SRH into homocysteine and 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD); however, no enzyme had ever been identified to catalyze this reaction. Indeed, as predicted, LuxS catalyzes this final reaction. Thus, bacteria that use Pfs and LuxS to recycle SAM pools generate DPD as an additional byproduct, and DPD is responsible for AI-2 activity [10].

Subtilis, and nearly all other organisms share certain basic features (fig. 2). The first is that the receptors always form homodimers Chemotactic Sensory Transduction 35 Table 1. Chemotaxis signaling proteins found in E. coli and B. subtilis Protein Description E. coli B. subtilis CheA Histidine kinase; phosphorylates CheY and other response regulators (CheB and CheV) [40, 43, 54, 61, 117, 147–160] x x CheB Receptor methylesterase; demethylates specific methyl-glutamate residues on the receptors [66, 94, 117, 129, 130, 140, 150, 154, 161–173] x x CheC CheYp phosphatase; primary role is in adaptation via binding to CheD [45, 121, 122, 134–137, 139, 174–180] x CheD Receptor deamidase; primary role is in adaptation via binding to CheC [121, 122, 134–139, 178, 179] x CheR Receptor methyltransferase; methylates specific glutamate resides on the receptors [55, 125, 127, 140, 143, 164, 170, 181–207] CheV Couples CheA to receptors; response regulator domain can be phosphorylated; role in adaptation [27, 58–60, 94, 145, 178, 208] CheW Couples CheA to the receptors [22, 39–42, 51, 54, 58, 59, 61, 67, 88, 209–231] x x CheY Response regulator.

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