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By Nader Hassanzadeh

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Watson/Crick). RNA has catalytic properties (the ribozymes of Cech and many others). e. ). g. ). The biosynthesis of histidine is uses ATP and PRPP. The biosynthesis of deoxynucleotides is from ribonucleotide diphosphates. The biosynthesis of dTMP is from dUMP (Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the enzyme that catalyzes the transformation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) into deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) in cells). e. TMV. Plant viroid RNAs (≈ 400 nt, catalytic RNA, Code no protein). 43 RNA & cell formation        RNA is a sister molecule to DNA, used when DNA breaks up to create proteins or replicate.

HGT appears to have had (at certain times in evolution) the potential not only to introduce entirely new functions into cells, but to displace any constituent (gene) in the cell with an alien equivalent. , 2000). 1),2006 55 Evolution of cellular organization Summing up   1. 2. 3. Cellular evolution is not about evolving genomes; it is about evolving cellular design. The simplest known single-celled life forms contain over 400 genes, and are much more complex than any hypothetical pre-RNA world.

2.    Taxonomists tend to fall into two schools: Traditional systematics Phylogenetic or cladistic systematics Modern phylogenetic methods are making many changes in traditional views of the Tree of Life. Since the 1970s, "phylogenetic systematics" has been gradually replacing "traditional systematics“. The student must understand both systems. 61 Phylogenetic Identification Advantages     Simple PCR based system. Can use pre-existing database as a reference frame. Discrimination of species and sub-species lineages according to length/number of loci.

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