By Hans Pauly
This publication completes the actual foundations and experimental innovations defined in quantity 1 with an up to date overview of the accent apparatus fundamental in molecular beam experiments. It extends the topic to cluster beams and beams of hyperthermal and subthermal energies. As in quantity 1, a different attempt is made to stipulate the actual foundations of many of the experimental strategies. as a result this ebook is meant not just as a reference average for researchers within the box, but in addition to deliver the flavour of present molecular beam study to complex undergraduates and graduate scholars and to allow them to realize a fantastic history within the box and its technique.
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Additional info for Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams II: Cluster Beams, Fast and Slow Beams, Accessory Equipment and Applications
1988)], as well as of metal atom beams [Knowles and Leone (1997), Ching et al. (1997)]. Target materials consisting of two cornponents (Cl2 and Xe, for example) have also been used [Campos et al. (1993)]. As an example, Fig. 22 shows schematically a setup which has been used to produce and investigate NO bearns (Cousins et al. (1989)]. 2 crn), in direct contact to a helium cryostat (2) and having a temperature between 20 and 30 K, forms the substrate surface for the NO layer. 3 mm 0) (4) is used for film deposition.
2 Neutralization of Negative Ions by Electron Detachment Another method of producing fast neutra! bearns involves the generation of a beam of negative ions, ion acceleration to the desired energy, and fmally ion neutralization by an electron detachment process. Either photodetachment or collisional detachment can be used. In favorable cases, autodetachment is also possible. These methods are described in more detail in the following sections. 1 Photodetachment Photodetachment has become possible with the advent of high power lasers [van Zyl et al.
This plasma colurnn hits 6 Fig. 12. Cross-sectional view of a low-energy (10 to 40 eV) neutra) beam source [Cuthbertson et al. (1992)). (1) gas supply with piezoelectric valve (2), (3) radiofrequency plasma source, (4) neutralization target, (5) baffie, (6) beam utilization chamber, (7) watercooled coils for the magnetic field, Pl and P2 vacuum pumps 24 1. Fast Beams, Production and Detection the neutralization surface, which consists of a thin plate of the chosen reflecting metal mounted on a water-cooled copper block.