Download Atlas of Clinical Urology: The Kidneys and Adrenals by Norm D. Smith, Frederick L. Hoff, Steven C. Campbell PDF

By Norm D. Smith, Frederick L. Hoff, Steven C. Campbell (auth.), Andrew C. Novick MD, Michael Marberger MD (eds.)

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Extra resources for Atlas of Clinical Urology: The Kidneys and Adrenals

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2-7), enhancement with intravenous contrast material, or any combination of these features. T hese Bosniak category 4 lesions are presumed malignant. Ill. The Kidneys and Adrenals 26 t FIGURE 2-11. Precontrast CT of a small renal cell carcinoma. The first part of a renal protocol CT consists of precontrast images obtained at 5-mm intervals and thicknesses. At the University of Michigan we currently use a helical scanner for all dedicated renal protocol scans because the entire abdomen can be imaged in one breath hold, which minimizes motion artifact.

At the anteromedial aspect of this cyst is a bright spot, which was present on the precontrast scan as well. This spot represents a peripheral calcification that excludes the cyst from consideration as a benign simple cyst and places it into the Bosniak category 2 classification of cystic renal masses. Lesions in this category have thin walls and may have a few thin septations and calcifications. The precontrast density is still 0 to 20 Hounsfield units (except in hyperdense cysts), and there is no enhancement following intravenous administration of contrast material.

T hese Bosniak category 4 lesions are presumed malignant. Ill. The Kidneys and Adrenals 26 t FIGURE 2-11. Precontrast CT of a small renal cell carcinoma. The first part of a renal protocol CT consists of precontrast images obtained at 5-mm intervals and thicknesses. At the University of Michigan we currently use a helical scanner for all dedicated renal protocol scans because the entire abdomen can be imaged in one breath hold, which minimizes motion artifact. The volume of data in a helical CT can be reconstructed in any plane.

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