By Hossein Ameri, James D. Weiland, Mark S. Humayun (auth.), Mark S. Humayun, James D. Weiland, Gerald Chader, Elias Greenbaum (eds.)
Artificial sight is a frontier region of contemporary ophthalmology combining the multidisciplinary abilities of surgical ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, organic physics, and psychophysical trying out. Many clinical, engineering, and surgical demanding situations needs to be surmounted earlier than common useful functions might be discovered. The aim of Artificial Sight is to summarize the state of the art study during this intriguing region, and to explain a few of the present techniques and tasks which could support sufferers in a medical surroundings.
The Editors are energetic researchers within the fields of man-made sight, biomedical engineering and organic physics. they've got got a number of specialist awards and popularity for his or her paintings. the substitute sight group on the Doheny Eye Institute, led through Dr. Mark Humayun, is a global chief during this quarter of biomedical engineering and scientific research.
- Introduces and assesses the state-of-the-art for a extensive viewers of biomedical engineers, biophysicists, and medical researchers
- Describes advances in microelectronics, microfabrication, surgical implantation, and psychophysical checking out of visible prostheses
- Outlines the promise of synthetic sight and the demanding situations that has to be met
Read Online or Download Artificial Sight: Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances PDF
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Extra resources for Artificial Sight: Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances
In experiments on cats, Dawson and Radtke found a threshold charge density of 30 5 C/cm2 16 . Chow et al. implanted their electrodes subretinally in rabbits, and reported a threshold charge density of 2 8 nC/cm2 to elicit EEPs . Although the distance from the electrodes to the retina was farther in our transcleral electrodes than that of the epi or subretinal electrodes, the threshold charge density to elicit EEPs was comparable with the other electrode placements. McCreery et al.  found that the threshold for stimulation-induced neural damages is determined by a synergetic interaction between charge density and charge per phase, and the limit for safe charge density decreased as charge density increased.
Fewer have looked at electrical 18 Ameri et al. stimulation in the case of outer retinal disease. This chapter will only consider the latter case of experiments. One of the first experiments in this area did not involve an implant, but instead used an external electrode to stimulate the eye [39–42]. It has been demonstrated that an electrically evoked response (EER) can be recorded through scalp electrodes, during electrical stimulation of the eye through a contact lens electrode. It has also been shown that this stimulation elicits sensations of streaks or dots of light (phosphenes) in individuals with advanced photoreceptor degeneration.
Arch Ophthalmol 1984; 102:1640–2. 16. AREDS report No 8. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of high dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss. Arch Ophthalmol 2001; 119:1417–36. 17. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group. Argon laser photocoagulation for neovascular maculopathy: five-year results from randomised clinical trials. Arch Ophthalmol 1991; 109:1109–14. 18. Fujii GY, De Juan E, Pieramici DJ, et al.