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By Professor Jean-Claude Gall (auth.)

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These have to be frequently renewed because of water action. This is why dwelling traces are common in shallow water environments, especially in the intertidal zone. ) (Fig. 36). On mobile substrates, the construction and maintenance of burrows requires a low level of water movement. One can identify two types of habitat: a) simple burrows in the form of a straight tube or pocket. The organisms maintain contact with the surface of the sediment by means of siphons (bivalves) or by the action of a retractile pedicle (lingulids).

4 7 8 10 Fig. 25. Succession of mammalian faunas during the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary. (Thenius and Kuhn-Schnyder in Theobald 1972) Beginning of the Quaternary (1 to 8). Warm fauna of the mid Quaternary (9 to 13). 1 Dolichopithecus; 2 Epimachairodus; 3 Tapirus; 4 Hipparion; 5 Mastodon (Anancus) arvernensis; 6 Leptobos; 7 Allohippus; 8 Archidiskodon (EZephas) meridionalis; 9 Rhinoceros from Merck; 10 EZephas antiquus; 11 Hippopotamus; 12 Macaque; 13 Buffalo; 14 Woolly rhinoceros; 15 Mammoth; 16 Reindeer; 17 Musk ox 32 Constraints on Living Conditions 2.

These borers penetrate rock and skeletal fragments indiscriminately. Reefs also establish themselves on hard bottoms. ~ Shell fragment Indurated sediment Fig. 17. Section through a hardground in a Bathonian limestone 2. Soft Bottoms Mobile substrates, sands and muds, have few epibiontic organisms. The endofauna, however, is both abundant and varied. The burrows and gallery systems which traverse the sediment turn aside when they come into contact with hard objects, such as pebbles and shells. Thus, when later the sands and muds are indurated into rock, one can distinguish them from boring;.

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