Download An Introduction to the Invertebrates by Janet Moore PDF

By Janet Moore

Moore's creation is short, yet informative. dependent within the common layout for a zoology textbook, she covers the fundamentals quick and good, after which increases attention-grabbing questions that pertain to no matter what phylum is in query. Having already performed coursework in invertebrates, i discovered this an outstanding refresher and nonetheless jam-packed with issues i didn't recognize (or had thoroughly forgotten).

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There may be further differentiation, for example between feeding and stinging individuals in the colony. Polymorphism is carried much further in Hydractinia, a colonial hydroid attached to the shell of a gastropod mollusc which is inhabited by a hermit crab. The planula larva settles on the shell and develops into a primary polyp, which buds into a mat of branching stolons (tubes of tissue with a coelenteron that connects polyps). These stolons bud off four kinds of polyps, all with batteries of nematocysts: first the feeding polyps, the only kind to have a mouth surrounded by tentacles; then the reproductive polyps, which bud off medusae that are not set free but release eggs or sperm into the sea; polyps with ‘fingers’ are formed only at the mouth of the mollusc’s shell, where they extract eggs; development of the fourth type of polyp, with a single long tentacle for defence, is stimulated by the presence of foreign organisms.

Hydra) Trachyline medusae (oceanic, without polyps) Milleporine corals (see below) Siphonophora (highly specialised polymorphic colonies). 3 How do Cnidaria make a living? 3) are the stinging cells that make it possible for these sessile polyps and floating jellyfish to be predatory carnivores, often feeding on animals larger than themselves. Nematocysts are specialised cells borne mainly on the tentacles. 35 36 CNIDARIA Fig. 4 The structure of a sea anemone (anthozoan): (a) longitudinal section; (b) transverse section.

3 How can we use fossils to investigate phylogeny? Fossils provide morphological evidence about animals that lived long ago. 1 What are fossils? They are the remnants of once-living animals, preserved in rocks or (less often) in sediments, amber, ice etc. The term is normally reserved for remains dating back to before the last Ice Age. Hard parts of animals may be preserved with little change in appearance: among invertebrates these include arthropod exoskeletons, the shells of molluscs and brachiopods (another phylum of shelled animals), HOW CAN WE USE FOSSILS TO INVESTIGATE PHYLOGENY?

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