By Gary Haynes
The quantity comprises summaries of evidence, theories, and unsolved difficulties touching on the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of usually huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the United States and approximately 1,000 years later in South the USA. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of humans has ended in the recommendation that foraging people are in charge, even supposing significant climatic shifts have been additionally occurring within the Americas in the course of a few of the extinctions. The final released quantity with related (but now not exact) subject matters -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; when you consider that then loads of leading edge, fascinating new examine has been performed yet has no longer but been compiled and summarized. varied chapters during this quantity supply in-depth resumés of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the United States, the prospective insights into animal ecology supplied by means of reports of sturdy isotopes and anatomical/physiological features similar to progress increments in gigantic and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic examine approximately large-mammal biology, the functions of relationship tips on how to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies relating human looking of enormous mammals.
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Extra resources for American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene
12,500 BP (12,482 ± 80 BP is the latest date). Mammoths seem to have died out later (Guthrie, 2006) (the last date is 11,500 ± 160 BP). Ostensible mammoth tracks are dated to ca. 11,600 BP, and ivory used by humans at the Broken Mammoth site was dated to 11,540 ± 140 BP – one of the very few indications of human-mammoth co-existence in eastern Beringia. Recently, Guthrie (2006) has presented a set of radiocarbon dates that appear to document a surge of bison population after 13,500 BP, followed by an explosive expansion of elk (wapiti) at ca.
Burned bones, 10,190 ± 120 (AA-19291) and 10,440 ± 100 (AA-39363). ) ca. , 2007); equid, species unidentified; dates on associated charcoal and wood, 10,920 ± 80 (Beta-194725) 11,060 ± 80 (Beta-215090), 11,090 ± 80 (Beta-215089) Apart from these, there are two stratified sequences of ground sloth dung in caves of the Southern Cone that are analogous to the sites in the southwestern US where abrupt cessation occurs in the absence of any evidence of human activity. , 1998). Dates for the uppermost dung balls include: 10,200 ± 300, 10,285 ± 240, 10,610 ± 32 210, 10,900 ± 185, 10,950 ± 60 BP.
The latter is obviously not an extinct species, but it’s been quite a while since caribou lived in Ohio. Several caves in the Southwest contain stratified, dated sequences that are merely suggestive of a Terminal Pleistocene catastrophe, because no evidence of human habitation or butchery is present. In these sites, steady deposition of dung through millennia by Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotheriops shastensis) stops abruptly at 11,000–10,800 BP. Relatively precise terminal dates on dung include: Gypsum Cave, NV, 11,005 ± 100, 11,080 ± 90 BP (Hofreiter et al.