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By Peter Evans

Advances in Insect body structure is devoted to publishing eclectic volumes containing accomplished and in-depth stories on all facets of insect body structure. First released in 1963, it truly is a necessary reference resource for invertebrate physiologists and neurobiologists, entomologists, zoologists, and bug biochemists. In 1999, the Institute for clinical details published figures exhibiting that Advances in Insect body structure has an impression issue of 4.5, putting it moment within the hugely aggressive classification of Entomology. Key positive factors * This quantity comprises 5 stories at the following subject matters: * The Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian tubule * Plasticity within the insect fearful approach * impartial amino acid absorption within the midgut of lepidopteran larvae * The unpaired median neurons of bugs * FMRFamide comparable peptides: a multifunctional relations of structurally similar neuropeptides in bugs

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Drosophila has been the subject of several screens for heavy metal susceptibility or resistance, and attention has focused on two regions: a short region of the midgut that contains `cuprophilic cells', which seem to be associated with metals (Dimitriadis, 1991), and the THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER MALPIGHIAN TUBULE 31 Malpighian tubules. In addition, the metallothionein gene family has been studied in detail, because Drosophila is an ideal organism in which to map inducible promoters. Taken together, these data allow us to form at least a tentative picture of metal transport and storage within this insect.

The Drosophila genome project has turned up two candidate urate transporter genes (CG11372 and CG11374, in tandem copy at 21A5) that are similar to the UATp transporters of vertebrates. It is thus entirely feasible that one of these genes will be expressed in tubules, and that in situ hybridizations will provide evidence for the route of urate transport. However, it would be wrong to imply that nitrogen is always excreted as urate. , 1992). Intriguingly, this gene is expressed at signi®cant levels only in third instar larvae and adults, and is repressed by the wave of ecdysone that presages pupation (Friedman and Johnson, 1977).

1 Cytochrome P450 One of the most abundant detoxifying enzymes is cytochrome P450 monoxygenase. This multigene family is classi®ed into divergent, but regionally similar, clades. , 1996). Given the functional role of the tubules, one might expect cytochrome P450 to be a major player in tubule metabolism. Nevertheless, there has been relatively little attention paid to the tubule in the extensive literature. , 1996). In this context, phenobarbitol is being used as a model compound for xenobiotics; interestingly, in ¯ies selected for resistance to DDT, CYP6A2 is constitutively overexpressed in these tissues, implying a role for the CYP6 family in insecticide resistance.

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