Download A Natural History of Rape: Biological Bases of Sexual by Randy Thornhill, Craig T. Palmer PDF

By Randy Thornhill, Craig T. Palmer

During this sure-to-be-controversial ebook, Randy Thornhill and Craig Palmer use evolutionary biology to give an explanation for the reasons of rape and to suggest new ways to its prevention. in line with Thornhill and Palmer, advanced model of a few variety provides upward push to rape; the most evolutionary query is whether or not rape is an variation itself or a spinoff of different variations. whatever the solution, Thornhill and Palmer notice, rape circumvents a crucial function of women's reproductive approach: mate selection. it is a fundamental the reason for this is that rape is devastating to its sufferers, particularly younger ladies. Thornhill and Palmer handle, and declare to demolish scientifically, many myths approximately rape bred by means of social technological know-how conception over the last twenty-five years. the preferred competition that rapists are usually not influenced by means of sexual wish is, they argue, scientifically misguided. even if they argue that rape is organic, Thornhill and Palmer don't view it as inevitable. Their thoughts for rape prevention comprise instructing younger men to not rape, punishing rape extra critically, and learning the effectiveness of "chemical castration." in addition they suggest that younger women think of the organic motives of rape while making judgements approximately costume, visual appeal, and social actions. Rape might stop to exist, they argue, purely in a society familiar with its evolutionary explanations. The publication encompasses a helpful precis of evolutionary thought and a comparability of evolutionary biology's and social science's causes of human habit. The authors argue for the higher explanatory energy and sensible usefulness of evolutionary biology. The e-book is certain to fan the flames of dialogue either at the particular subject of rape and at the greater problems with how we comprehend and effect human habit.

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Extra resources for A Natural History of Rape: Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion

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However, since "biological" actually means "of or pertaining to life," it is quite valid to claim that any phenotypic trait of an organism is biologically, or evolutionarily, determined (Daly and Wilson 1983, chapter 10; Oyama 1985). Genes per se are not evaluated by selection. Instead, it is the interaction of genes and environment that selection evaluates. When a given interaction produces a trait that promotes individual reproduction more than an alternative trait created by a different gene-environment interaction, the genetic underpinning of the reproductively superior trait increases in frequency in the population.

Hence, height (like all aspects of living things) is "biologically determined," because it is the product of both genetic and environmental factors. That heritability is a very different concept than inheritance is evident from the fact that inheritance occurs in the absence of heritability. For example, although two hands are normally inherited from one's parents, hand number is not a heritable trait—that is, there is essentially no genetic variance underlying hand number. In times past, hand number in humans was under strong selection, and that greatly reduced genetic variation affecting the development of this trait.

34 Chapter 2 The reasoning that underlies Trivers's theory goes as follows: Because a population is a collection of interbreeding individuals, the parental effort of all the individuals of one sex is potentially accessible to each member of the opposite sex. Thus, parental effort will be the object of all competition among members of one sex for the opposite sex. Males will compete with other males to gain access to the parental effort of females, and females will compete with other females to gain access to the parental effort of males.

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