Download A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures, 2nd by National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements PDF

By National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (Editors)

This document addresses the dimension of radioactivity and offers with the massive variety of various radioactive fabrics that experience develop into on hand within the final 3 many years, from nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, for purposes in drugs, clinical study, and undefined. It additionally addresses low-level radioactivity measurements for the tracking of radioactivity in environmental media, reminiscent of air and water, in reference to the keep watch over of radioactive effluents linked to the construction of nuclear strength or using radionuclides.
Content:
• entrance topic
• Preface to the 1st version
• Preface to the second one version
• desk of Contents
1. advent
2. Physics of a few Radiation Detectors
three. primary or Direct Measurements of task in Radioactive Decay
four. oblique or Comparative Measurements of task in Radioactive Decay
five. ideas for the practise of ordinary resources for Radioactivity Measurements
6. The Assay of Radioactivity and the identity of Radionuclides in Environmental, clinical, and commercial Laboratories
7. facts
eight. Measurements coverage, criteria, Traceability and the assertion of Uncertainty
Appendix A: Nuclear-Decay facts for chosen Radionuclides
Appendix B: The records of Radioactive Decay
• References A-J
• References K-Z
• The NCRP
• NCRP courses
• Index

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Additional info for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures, 2nd edition

Sample text

4 Output-Pulse Processing As outlined above, the electron-multiplier phototube embodies two functions that are essential to the performance of a scintillation detector: (1) the detection and conversion of the light emitted by the phosphor into a pulse of electrons; and (2) the amplification of this minute amount of current to a level that can be suitably handled in conventional electronic-amplifier circuits. The amplification of the initial number of photoelectrons emitted from the photocathode of the tube is accomplished by a process of electron multiplication.

When the time constant is increased, the voltage rises as shown in the upper curve, for RC = a,of Figure 6. Here, a fast rise (to point a) a t the beginning of the pulse, due to the rapidly moving electrons, is followed by a slower increase (to point b ) due to the movement of the positive ions. When it is feasible to use a gas that allows fast electron collection, a differentiating time constant of only a few microseconds is usually chosen to prevent pulse pile-up at high counting rates. If the differentiating time constant is longer than the time for electron collection but much shorter than for collection of the positive ions, the pulse shape is determined by the movement of the electrons.

2. The development of the scintillation detector in its many forms has generated a variety of detection devices that have application in the measurement and characterization of all types of radiation emittted in the decay of radioactive nuclei. Although all scintillating phosphors can be utilized for the detection of radiation, the properties of different fluorescent media may be optimized for a particular application. For example, the detection of high-energy gamma radiation with optimum efficiency requires a detector with high density and preferably with high atomic number.

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