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By Peter Hofschroer

Previously unpublished eyewitness money owed and conflict reviews German, British, and Dutch archive fabric released for the 1st time arguable reassessment of the total crusade here's a certain reassessment of the Hundred Days and a strong research of the epic war of words at Waterloo. the 1st of 2 volumes, this examine is a completely researched exam of the hole strikes of the crusade from a brand new standpoint according to facts by no means earlier than awarded to an English-speaking viewers. Hofschrer arrives at far-reaching conclusions concerning the arguable idea that the Duke of Wellington deceived his Prussian alliesand all next historians of the crusade. by means of providing occasions from the viewpoint of the Germans, the writer undermines the conventional view of the crusade as one fought out through the French and the British and divulges the an important position of troops from Prussia and the German states.

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Fritz kept Pacelli from making real headway until the bishop died at the end of 1931. 76 The Reichskonkordat emerged, as had the three state concordats, through a diplomatic power play engineered by a handful of men who nominally acted on behalf of Catholic Germans while excluding them from the deal making. Even the episcopate, not to mention the lower clergy and laity, were held at arm’s length during negotiations. 77 Although Hitler’s explicit enemy before 1933 was primarily communism and its sympathizers, not the Church, the Nazi Party’s success in the 1932 Reichstag elections pushed Pacelli to resume efforts to secure a national concordat.

He feared for the rights of the Catholic Church in Germany and a continued loss of Catholics to an openly antiChristian ideology. He found an ally in the Catholic politician Franz von Papen, who became chancellor in July. 78 36 WEHRMACHT PRIESTS The Bishops and the Reichskonkordat The concordat came into existence almost entirely without the bishops’ input. Hitler had partially pacified the episcopate in his speech to the Reichstag in March 1933, leading to the Enabling Act. ”79 The bishops still worried, however, and in mid-April 1933 Bertram wrote to Hitler expressing his apprehension about the future of Catholic lay organizations in Nazi Germany.

He also condemned socialism for its attacks on private property, enshrined as just and necessary in both sacred and natural law. 31 Leo XIII’s fi n-de-siècle charge against socialism moderated in the first two decades of the twentieth century. 32 In the wake of the Russian Revolution and through the chaos of the civil war that followed, Benedict XV and his successor, Pius XI, attempted to reach a private agreement with the Soviet state. From the end of the war through the 1920s, no explicit judgment of the socialist or communist movements, or the latter’s Russian variant, Bolshevism, came from the Holy See.

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